In Spain, Europe's largest fish producer, the action is expected to bring the industry to a halt.
Fishermen in France have been protesting for weeks, and their counterparts in Portugal, Belgium and Italy are also joining the campaign.
UK and Dutch lorry-drivers held similar protests earlier this week.
The strike reflects anger at the rising cost of fuel, with oil prices above $130 (83.4 euros) a barrel.
Trade unions say the cost of diesel has become prohibitively high, after rising 300% over the past five years.
Wholesale fish prices, meanwhile, have been static for 20 years.
The European Commission has promised immediate help to restructure Europe's fishing industry, but it says subsidies to offset rising fuel costs would be illegal.
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