The star - real name Dwayne Carter - was unable to undergo the work beforehand as his dentist had been out of the country, his lawyer said.
He is scheduled to return to the New York State Supreme Court on 2 March.
In December, he pleaded guilty to charges arising from a 2007 arrest when a gun was found on his tour bus after a concert in Manhattan.
The rapper did not say anything in court.
Manhattan assistant district attorney Joan Illuzzi-Orbon did not argue about the delay in sentencing saying she had spoken with the dentist.
The sentencing comes at the peak of the rapper's career.
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