A massacre of 31 journalists in the Philippines broke the old record of 67 deaths, set only in 2007.
Some 150 journalists are currently in jail, including 60 in Iran where the CJP says the authorities have in effect criminalised journalism.
The group said online journalists were particularly vulnerable to repression.
According to its report, Attacks on the Press 2009, online reporters made up more than half of the news workers in prison worldwide.
As in the previous 10 years, China remained the world's worst jailer of journalists - with 24 being held.
China was followed by Iran, Cuba, Eritrea and Burma.
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