Iniesta struck with four minutes remaining to settle a tetchy encounter and crown Spain world champions, while Netherlands were left to rue Robben's missed opportunity to open the scoring in normal time.
The game will be noted for the flurry of cards - 14 in all - starting in the 14th minute when Howard Webb booked Robin van Persie.
Pretty soon combative midfield duo Mark van Bommel and Nigel de Jong joined him for challenges - a late lunge on Joan Capdevila and a kung fu kick on Xabi Alonso respectively - that could easily have ended their evening.
That Wesley Sneijder was not even cautioned for a similarly woeful attempt at stopping Pedro could only be put down to either Webb being unsighted or the Dutch playmaker diverting attention by claiming to be injured himself.
Spain were not complete innocents in all of this, but it was the European Champions who were feeling most aggrieved, which only intensified when Webb did not see a niggly second-half challenge from Van Bommel that sparked a reaction from Barcelona playmaker Iniesta.
Read more on ESPN...